Chapter 9

How should a man train himself to acquire the quality of Sovereignty? First and foremost he should not be proud in his heart[1] because of all that is his, but he should behave constantly like a beggar, standing before his Creator as a poor man begging and offering supplication. Even if he is wealthy he can train himself to behave in this way by considering that none of his possesions are attached to him and that he is forsaken requiring the mercies of Heaven at all times, for all he has is the bread he eats, and he should humble his heart and afflict himself. Especially at the time of prayer[2], for this is a wonderful aid. Of the opposite it is said: "Then thy heart[3] be lifted up, and thou forget..' For the forgetting belonging to the Outside Ones[4] is found there. David behaved in this way to great extent when he said: "For I am solitary[5] and afflicted." For all the people of his household have themselves to consider. What are they all to him? What can even his wife and children do for him when he is judged before the Creator or when his soul departs? Can they accompany him beyond the grave? Of what use are they to him from the entrance of the grave and onwards? He should therefore humble himself and perfect himself according to the secret of this quality.

A second method is explained in the Zohar[6] and it is very important. He should exile himself from place to place for the sake of Heaven and in this way he will become a chariot to the Exiled Shekinah. He should imagine: 'Behold I have gone into exile but, behold, my utensils go with me. What shall be with the honor of the Most High seeing that the Shekinah is in exile without Her utensils which are lacking as a result of the Exile?' Because of this he should be satisfied with as little as possible, as it is written 'Prepare thee stuff for exile'[7] and he should humble his heart in exile and bind himself to the Torah and then the Shekinah will be with him. And he should carry out divorces, divorcing himself from his house of rest constantly, after the fashion of R. Simeon and his company who divorced themselves to study the Torah. And how much better if he bruises his feet wandering from place to place without horse and chariot. Concerning him it is said: 'His hope[8] (sibhro) is with the Lord his God.' which they explained[9] from the expression shebher ('to break'), for he breaks his body in the service of the Most High.

A further most excellent quality of Sovereignty from the gate of divine service as a whole is to fear the Lord, the honored and the awful. Now, behold, fear is very dangerous[10] in the making of a flaw and to allow the Outside Ones to enter, for it he is afraid of sufferings or death or Hell, behold, this is the fear of the Outside Ones; for all these things are from the Outside Ones. However, the main fear is to fear the Lord, which is achieved by considering three things: the first is that the greatness of the Creator is above all existing things. Now, man is afraid of the lion, the bear, the robber, fire and falling masonry, yet these are but puny deputies. Why then should he not fear the Great King? And his fear should be constantly on his face because of His greatness. And he should say: "How dare despicable man sin before such a great Lord?" Behold, it it were a lion it would eat him, but merely because of the Holy One, Blessed is He, is patient is this a reason for not fearing Him? Secondly, he should consider the constancy of Providence, that He looks and gazes at him. Now, a slave is afraid in the presence of his master and man is always in the Creator's Pressence Whole eyes are open to all his ways. He should be afraid and terrified to nullify His commands. Thirdly, He is the root of all souls, all of which are rooted in His Sephiroth. And since sin makes a flaw in His Palace how should he not be afraid to soil, with his evil deeds, the King's Palace? Fourthly, he should observe that the flaw in his deeds pushes away the Shekinah from above. He should fear to cause this great evil of seperating the love of the King[11] from the Queen[12]. This kind of fear is that which puts man on the right path for the perfection of this quality and by means of it he cleaves to it.

Furthermore, a man must be very careful to behave so that the Shekinah cleaves always to him and never departs. Now, it is obvious that the Shekinah cannot be with a bachelor for the Shekinah is mainly from the female[13]. Man stands between the two females, the physical female below who recieves food, raiment and conjugal rights[14] from him, and the Shekinah who stands above him to bless him with these which he, in turn, gives to the wife of his covenant[15]. This is after the pattern of Beauty, which stands between the two Females: the Higher Mother[16], which pours out all that it requires, and the Lower Mother[17], which recieves from it food, raiment and conjugal rights, namely lovingkindness, justice, and pity as is known. And the Shekinah cannot come to him unless he resembles the Supernal Reality.

Now, a man separates himself from his wife at times for one of three reasons:

1. when she is in her period of seperation
2. when he studies the Torah and lives apart from her during the week-days[18].
3. when he journeys from home and keeps himself from sin.

During these times the Shekinah cleaves to him and is bound to him and does not leave him so that he be not forsaken and separate but always the perfect man, male and female. Because, then, that the Shekinah unites with him a man should take care that She does not depart from him while he is traveling. He should be industrious and profit[19] by reciting the traveller's prayer[20] and by holding fast to the Torah, for by virtue of this the Shekinah, which guards the way, stands by him always when he takes care not to sin and to study the Torah. So, too, when his wife is in her period of separation the Shekinah stays with him if he keeps the laws of separation properly. Afterwards, on the night of her purification or on the night of the Sabbath or on his homecoming from the journey each one of these is a time of dutiful cohabitation. The Shekinah is constantly open above to receive holy souls so it is likewise fitting that he have congress with his wife and by virtue of this the Shekinah will always be with him. So it is explained in the Zohar[21] to the first section of Genesis.

Congress with his wife should only take place when the Shekinah is in Her place, that is between the Two Arms[22]. During a public disaster, however, when the Shekinah is not between the Two Arms, it is forbidden, and so it is stated in the Tikkunim to Genesis[23].

He who wants to be united with the King's Daughter, that She never depart from him, must first adorn himself with all the adornments and fine garments, and these are all the Tikkunim of the qualities mentioned[24]. After he has so adorned himself he should intend to recieve Her while studying the Torah and bearing the yoke of the precepts, according to the secret of the perpetual union. Immediately then She becomes married to him and never more departs from him. But this is conditional on his purity and sanctification and when he is then so pure and holy he can intendto fulfil for Her the duty of providing Her with food, raiment and conjugal rights which are the three things a man is obliged to do for his earthly wife.

The first is to provide Her from the Right with the flow that is Her food by virtue of his deeds. The second is to cover Her from Power so that the Outside Ones have no dominion over Her, namely, that there be no trace of the evil inclination in the carrying out of the precepts, not for the benefit of the body nor for the hope of illusionary honor, for instance; for then the evil inclination is present in that precept and She flees from it, for it is shame. Therefore he should cover the shame and hide Her ever that it have no dominion over Her. How should he do this? By doing all his actions for the sake of Heaven and without any trace of evil inclination. Tephillin[25] and Tzittzith[26] are also powerful in shielding Her[27] that the Outside Ones have no dominion over Her and he should be accustomed to wear them. Thirdly, to make union with Beauty during the time of reading the Shema and by setting aside periods for the study of the Torah. And when he sets aside a period for any purpose he should intend that this is the time of the Shekinah[28], the King's Daughter. And there is a hint of this in the Tikkunim[29].

not be proud in his heart. For the Sephirah Sovereignty is the lowest of the Sephirah, recieving from all the others.

Especially at the time of prayer. V. Zohar III, 195a, where it is said that the prayer of the poor takes precedence of the prayer Moses or David or of any other man.

Then thy heart. Deut. 8:14

the Outside Ones. The kelipot.

For I am solitary. Ps. 25:16

in the Zohar. II, 198b, Soncino Vol. 4, p 171: 'Now you exalted saints who endure bodily affliction in wandering from place to place for the sake of the Holy One, Blessed is He, how much more are you worthy that miracles and acts of redemption should be performed for you, and that you should win the life of the world to come!"

Prepare thee stuff Ez. 7:3

His hope. Ps. 146:5

they explained. Zohar II, 198a. By a change of vowel points in the verse is made to read: 'His breaking (shibero) is for the Lord his God.'

fear is very dangerous 'There are three types of fear: two have no proper root, while the third is the real fear. There is the man who fears the Holy One in order that his children may live or lest he be punished. . .Another man fears the Holy One because he is afraid of punishment in the other world. . .The genuine type of fear is that which makes a man fear his Maker because He is the mighty ruler. . .' (Zohar, Prologue, 11b, Soncino, Vol. I, pp. 47-49)

love of the King The Sephirah of Beauty.

from the Queen The Sephirah of Sovereignty.

from the female 'For all females are in the shelter of the Shekinah, and it abides with one who has a wife, but not with one who has none. . .' (Zohar I, 228b).

food, raiment, conjugal rights. Ex. 21:10

wife of his convenant Mal. 2:14

Higher Mother the Sephirah of Understanding

Lower Mother the Sephirah of Sovereignty

during the week-days But not during the Sabbath: 'How often are scholars to perform their marital duties? Rab Judah in the name of Samuel replied: Every Friday night' (Keth. 62b)

industrious and profit a Rabbinic expression, v. Pes. 50b.

the traveller's prayer Ber. 29b-30a.

explained in the Zohar 'It is incumbent on a man to be ever "male and female" in order that his faith may be firm, and that the Shekinah may never depart from him. What, then, you will say, of a man who goes on a journey and, being absent from his wife, is no longer "male and female?" His remedy is to pray to GGod before he starts his journey, while he is still "male and female" in order to draw to himself the presence of his Master. When he has offered his prayer and thanksgiving and the Shekinah rests on him, then he can depart, for through his union with the Shekinah he has become "male and female" in the world as he has "male and female" in the town. . . When he does reach home again, it is his duty to give his wife some pleasure, because it is she who acquired for him this heavenly partner. It is his dutyto do this for two reasons. One is that this pleasure is a religious pleasure, one which gives pleasure to the Shekinah also. . .The other is, that if his wife becomes pregnant, the celestial partner imparts to the child a holy soul. . .In this way, the students of the Torah who separate from their wives during the six days of the week in order to devote themselves to study are accompanied by a heavenly partner in order that they may continue to be "male and female." When Sabbath comes, it is incumbent on them to gladden their wives for the sake of the honer of the heavenly partner, and to seek to perform the will of the Master, as has been said. Similarly again, if a man's wife is observing the days of her separation, during all those days that he waits for her the heavenly partner is associated with him, so that he is still "male and female." When his wife is purified , it is his duty to gladden her through the glad performance of a religious precept. All the reasons we have mentioned above apply to this case also' (Zohar I, 49b-50a, Soncino Vol. I, pp 158-159).

the Two Arms Lovingkindness (Chesed) and Power (Geburah)

Tikkunim to Genesis Tikk. 69, 102b Called by C. "to Genesis" because the passage is in the form of a commentary to a verse in Genesis.

Tikkunim of the qualities mentioned i.e. the Tikkunim of the Sephiroth mentioned in the previous pages of the book.

Tephillin Phylacteries, worn in obedience to the Rabbinic interpretation of Ex. 8:9 and 16, Deut. 6:8 and 6:18.

Tzitzith The fringes to be attached to the corners of garments, Num. 15:37-41

in shielding Her V. Zohar I, 23b

the time of the Shekinah The Hebrew for 'conjugal rights' is 'onah', lit. 'time.'

in the Tikkunim V. Tikkunim, Tikk. 6, 18a